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Unfair Labour Practices – Section 2(ra) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

Introduction to Unfair Labour Practices

Unfair labour practices, as defined in Section 2(ra) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (ID Act), are practices that infringe on the rights of workers and employers. They affect the harmony and well-being of the industrial sector by promoting unjust and unethical conduct.



Definition under Section 2(ra)

Section 2(ra) of the ID Act provides an exhaustive definition of what constitutes unfair labour practices on the part of employers, workmen, and trade unions. This section is instrumental in fostering an environment of fairness, trust, and transparency.

Components of Unfair Labour Practices

  1. Employer's Conduct: This includes imposing unreasonable or discriminatory conditions on employment, dismissal without proper inquiry, and hiring or rewarding employees for unfair reasons.

  2. Workmen's Conduct: This involves fraudulent activities, coercing other workmen, and causing wilful damage to employers’ property.

  3. Trade Unions' Conduct: This includes coercing workmen to join unions, promoting illegal strikes, and other malicious activities affecting the industry's integrity.


Examples of Unfair Labour Practices

  • Denying employees' legitimate rights to form or join a union

  • Terminating an employee without proper reason or inquiry

  • Creating obstacles in the fair settlement of industrial disputes


Relevant Case Laws

  1. Food Corporation of India v. Workmen: The court held that conducting any form of unfair labour practice is in violation of principles of natural justice.

  2. Telco Convoy Drivers Mazdoor Sangh v. State of Bihar & Ors: The court affirmed the prohibition of unfair labour practices listed under the Fifth Schedule of the ID Act.


Consequences of Unfair Labour Practices

  • Legal Penalties: Violation of Section 2(ra) may lead to legal proceedings, penalties, or even imprisonment.

  • Loss of Trust: Employers engaging in unfair practices may lose the trust and goodwill of their employees.

  • Industrial Instability: Persistent unfair practices can lead to industrial unrest and instability.


Conclusion: Balancing Rights and Responsibilities

Unfair labour practices under Section 2(ra) are designed to ensure a balance between the rights and responsibilities of employers, workmen, and trade unions. Through a combination of well-defined rules, legal precedents, and ethical considerations, this section plays a vital role in shaping India's industrial relations landscape.

By clearly demarcating what constitutes unfair conduct, Section 2(ra) acts as a safeguard against unethical practices, fostering an atmosphere of respect and cooperation. The realization of a fair industrial environment is key to social and economic progress, reflecting the principles enshrined in the Indian Constitution and the country's democratic ideals.

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