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PAN: A Key Identifier in the Indian Taxation System

Permanent Account Number (PAN) is a unique, ten-digit alphanumeric identifier issued by the Income Tax Department of India to individuals, companies, and entities participating in economic activities within the country. The primary objective of PAN is to enable seamless tracking of financial transactions, facilitate tax compliance, and prevent tax evasion.

Underlying Structure of PAN

A PAN card bears the PAN number, holder's name, father's name, and the date of birth or date of incorporation in case of companies. The structure of the PAN reveals certain information. The first five characters are alphabetic, next four are numeric, and the final character is alphabetic. The fourth character represents the status of the PAN holder. For instance, 'P' represents an individual, 'C' stands for a company, 'H' signifies HUF (Hindu Undivided Family), and so forth.

Significance of PAN in the Indian Taxation System

PAN serves several critical functions within the Indian economy:

  1. Tax Identification: PAN is used to track taxable components of an individual's or entity's financial transactions, ensuring effective tax compliance.

  2. Preventing Tax Evasion: By recording all financial transactions made via PAN, it becomes difficult for taxpayers to avoid taxes, thereby curbing tax evasion.

  3. Simplifying Taxation Process: PAN makes it easier for the tax authorities to manage taxpayers' information, leading to increased efficiency in the taxation process.

  4. Universal Identification: PAN acts as a universal identification key that tracks financial transactions across various sectors and entities, making it simpler for the government to track the economic progress of an individual or entity.

Case Law Illustrating the Importance of PAN

In the case of 'Vodafone International Holdings B.V. vs Union Of India & Anr' (2012), the Supreme Court emphasized the importance of PAN in ensuring tax compliance in high-value transactions. The case revolved around Vodafone's failure to deduct tax at source while making payment to Hutchinson Telecommunication International Limited. The court highlighted that had a PAN been used in the transaction, the tax evasion could have been effectively prevented.

PAN and Opening a Bank Account

PAN card is a mandatory document for opening a bank account in India. It serves as an identity proof and is essential for the following reasons:

  1. Identity Verification: The PAN card helps banks verify the identity of the account holder, ensuring that the account is not being opened under a false identity.

  2. Regulatory Compliance: As per RBI (Reserve Bank of India) guidelines, it is compulsory to provide PAN details while opening a new bank account. This is part of the KYC (Know Your Customer) norms to prevent financial frauds.

  3. Tracking Financial Transactions: Banks use PAN details to track financial transactions of their customers, which helps in preventing money laundering and other illegal activities.

  4. TDS Deduction: Banks are required to deduct TDS (Tax Deducted at Source) on interest earned on deposits if it exceeds a certain limit. The deducted amount is credited to the Income Tax Department against the PAN number.

For example, if Mr. Sharma wants to open a savings account in a bank, he will need to provide his PAN card along with other necessary documents like address proof and a recent photograph. If Mr. Sharma does not have a PAN, he can submit Form 60, declaring that he does not have a PAN, along with reasons for not having one. However, he would still be required to apply for a PAN and provide it to the bank once obtained.


PAN is an essential part of the Indian financial ecosystem, acting as a critical tool for tax compliance and facilitating transparency in financial transactions. Its significance extends beyond the realm of taxation, forming a vital element in activities like opening a bank account and fulfilling regulatory obligations.

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